Menstrual cycle and ovulation


As a rule, once a month in one of the ovaries under the influence of hormones matures a follicle with an egg cell inside. As soon as the egg cell matures, the follicle bursts and throws it near the fallopian tube, or oviduct. This moment is called ovulation. The fallopian tube with the help of special fimbria suck in the egg cell into itself, and then with the help of cilia with which it is lined, it moves the egg cell to the uterus. At the same time, the uterus is getting prepared to meet the egg: the blood vessels get filled with blood, the glands secrete nutritional substances, the mucous membrane becomes loose. The uterus is ready. If the egg cell is fertilized, then on the seventh day of its journey it will reach its goal and take shelter in a cozy loose wall inside the uterus (this is called implantation). If not, then the chemical signals about this will reach the endocrine glands and they will temporarily stop the production of hormones. The egg cell has a chance to get fertilized within 36-48 hours after it leaves the ovary.
The unfertilized egg cell atrophies and is completely destroyed. The mucous membrane of the uterus deprived of hormonal nutrition gets separated and removed from the body along with blood, mucus and vaginal secretions. This is menstruation. The first day of menstrual bleeding is considered to be the first day of the menstrual cycle. In the first half of the cycle, when follicles mature in the ovaries and an egg cell grows in them, the ovaries actively produce estrogen hormones. Therefore, this phase is called estrogenic. In the second half of the cycle, the burst follicle at the site of the released egg cell begins to synthesize the hormone of corpus luteum which helps the uterine lining to prepare for the implantation of the ovum. This phase of the menstrual cycle is called corpus luteum phase. Immediately before the ovulation, when the uterus prepares to meet a fertilized egg, most women loom large. In the second half of the cycle, when the process of rejection and cleaning of the used and unsuitable material begins in the uterus, women can become more excitable and irritable, especially 2-3 days before the beginning of menstruation.