At the moment the method of intrauterine contraception is one of the most popular in the world. More than 80 million women successfully use intrauterine devices. German gynecologist R. Richter could hardly guess this when he suggested in 1909 inserting silk threads wound into a ring into the uterine cavity with the aim of contraception. From that time begins the official history of intrauterine contraception. Although the first written references to the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices are present in the medical works of scientists of ancient China and Japan (silver balls were inserted into the uterus). The widespread use of contraceptives (IUDs) began when were designed the contraceptives from flexible and safe plastic. This happened in the 60s of the past century. In the following years the method was constantly improved; the contraceptives of second and third generations were developed. Modern contraceptives contain copper, silver, gold. There are IUDs that release a small amount of hormones (progesterone). The addition of metals and hormones to contraceptives many times increased their effectiveness and safety compared with the first plastic spirals. So, a modern intrauterine contraceptive is a small plastic device that a doctor with the help of a special syringe painlessly inserts into the uterine cavity. Its contraceptive effect begins starting from the moment of insertion.
The high efficiency of the contraceptive is due to its effect on the uterine mucous membrane, the change in the rate at which the egg moves through the fallopian tubes and a number of other factors. It is very important that after extracting the contraceptive, the ability to have children is restored in more than 92% of women.
Advantages and disadvantages of intrauterine contraception
The advantages of intrauterine contraception are that they are highly effective (efficiency reaches 92-99%), do not have a systemic effect on the body, are easy to use, cost-effective. The disadvantages of intrauterine contraception include the fact that this method is not suitable for all women (there is a number of medical contraindications) and it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections and AIDS.
Indications and contraindications to the use of intrauterine contraceptives
The humanity has not yet created a perfect contraceptive. Therefore, it is very important to know the main indications and contraindications to the use of different methods of contraception. Currently, it is believed that the method of intrauterine contraception is the best choice for married women who have already given birth, who need long-term contraception and do not want or cannot take birth control pills daily for health reasons. Intrauterine devices should not be used in case of inflammatory diseases of genital organs, high risk of infection with sexually transmitted diseases (there are several sexual partners), prolonged and heavy menstrual bleeding. One should ask more details about the indications and contraindications to the use of intrauterine contraception at the gynecologist and one should undergo a gynecological examination (examination, smears, ultrasound ...)
It is important to remember while using intrauterine contraceptives:
- do not continue to use the contraceptive longer than the period recommended by the doctor (from 3 to 7 years, depending on the model of the IUD);
- do not continue to use the method of intrauterine contraception if persistent menstrual cycle disorders have developed (after 8-12 months after the insertion of IUD menstrual bleeding is still abundant), if there is pain in the lower abdomen;
- if there is a high risk of being infected with the sexually transmitted infections, additionally use a condom;
- annually undergo preventive examinations.
The contraceptive can be removed at any time at the request of a woman. It is necessary to remove the IUD after the end of the recommended period of "use" of contraceptive. If a woman wants to continue using intrauterine contraception and there are no medical contraindications, a “new” IUD can be inserted immediately after removing the “old” one.